Endoscopy: Procedures using an endoscope to diagnose or treat a condition. There are several types of endoscopy. Those using natural body openings include esophogealgastroduodenoscopy (EGD)-often called upper endoscopy, gastroscopy, enteroscopy, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), colonoscopy, and sigmoidoscopy. Those using small incisions include percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Endoscopies are usually performed under sedation to assure maximal patient comfort.
Sigmoidoscopy: An examination of the inside of the rectum and sigmoid colon using an endoscope-a thin, lighted flexible tube (sigmoidoscope) inserted through the anus. Also called flexible sigmoidoscopy and proctosigmoidoscopy.
Colonoscopy: An examination of the inside of the colon, including the rectum, sigmoid colon, descending colon, transverse colon, ascending colon, and cecum (where the small bowel attaches to the large bowel) using an endoscope-a thin, lighted flexible tube inserted through the anus.
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): A technique used to study and treat problems of the ducts involving the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. This procedure utilizes a special endoscope with a side-mounted camera can facilitate passage of a catheter into the bile and pancreatic ducts.
Enteroscopy: A procedure that allows the visualization of more of the small bowel than is possible with EGD, through the use of a long conventional endoscope, a wireless camera mounted in a swallowed capsule, or a double-balloon endoscope (inserted in the mouth).
Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS): An examination with a special endoscope fitted with a small ultrasound device on the end, used to look inside the layers of the wall of the GI tract and visualize the surrounding organs including the pancreas, liver and gallbladder. The scope is inserted in the mouth or anus in the same manner as a conventional endoscope.
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG): A procedure through which a flexible feeding tube is placed with the assistance of an endoscope through a small incision in the abdominal wall into the stomach. This procedure is performed in cases where oral ingestion of nourishment or medication is impossible.